- cutting: an excavation through high ground for
a road, canal, etc.
- embankment: an artificial elevation constructed
from earth, stone, etc. carrying a road, railway or similar or serving to dam water.
- dune: a mound, ridge or hill of drifted
material on the sea coast or in a desert. (adapted from IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition,
- hill: a small isolated elevation, smaller than
a mountain. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2262)
- pingo: a dome-shaped hill formed in a
permafrost area when the hydrostatic pressure of freezing ground water causes the upheaval
of a layer of frozen ground. (Encyclopaedia Britannica Mycropaedia, 15th Edition)
- cliff: land rising abruptly for a considerable
distance above the water or surrounding land. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 829)
- scree: rocky debris on the side or at the foot
of a mountain forming a steep stony slope.